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Internet of Things

Internet of Things


The Internet of Things, referred to as IoT, refers to the real-time collection of any object or process that needs to be monitored, connected, and interacted through various information sensors, radio frequency identification technology, global positioning system, infrared sensors, laser scanners and other devices and technologies.


Collect all kinds of required information such as sound, light, heat, electricity, mechanics, chemistry, biology, location, etc., and realize the ubiquitous connection between things and people and people through various possible network access, and realize the connection between objects and people.


Intelligent perception, identification and management of processes. The Internet of Things is an information carrier based on the Internet, traditional telecommunication networks, etc. It enables all common physical objects that can be independently addressed to form an interconnected network.




The Internet of Things (IoT, Internet of things) is the "Internet of all things connected", which is an extended and expanded network based on the Internet. Anywhere, the interconnection of people, machines and things


The Internet of Things is an important part of the new generation of information technology. The IT industry is also called: Pan-Internet, which means that things are connected and everything is connected. Therefore, "the Internet of Things is the Internet of things connected".


This has two meanings: first, the core and foundation of the Internet of Things is still the Internet, which is an extended and expanded network based on the Internet; exchange and communication.


Therefore, the definition of the Internet of Things is to use radio frequency identification, infrared sensors, global positioning systems, laser scanners and other information sensing equipment to connect any item with the Internet according to the agreed protocol to exchange and communicate information to achieve A network for intelligent identification, location, tracking, monitoring and management of items


Development path 


The concept of the Internet of Things first appeared in Bill Gates' 1995 book "The Road to the Future". In "The Road to the Future", Bill Gates already mentioned the concept of the Internet of Things, but it was limited by wireless networks, hardware and sensing equipment at that time. development has not attracted the attention of the world


In 1998, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology creatively put forward the idea of ​​"Internet of Things" called EPC system at that time.


In 1999, the American Auto-ID first proposed the concept of "Internet of Things", which is mainly based on item coding, RFID technology and the Internet. In the past in China, the Internet of Things was called the sensor network.


The Chinese Academy of Sciences started the research on sensor networks as early as 1999, and has achieved some scientific research results and established some applicable sensor networks. In the same year, the International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networks held in the United States proposed, "The sensor network is another development opportunity for mankind in the next century."


In 2003, the American "Technology Review" proposed that sensor network technology will be the first of ten technologies that will change people's lives in the future.


On November 17, 2005, at the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) held in Tunisia, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) released the "ITU Internet Report 2005: Internet of Things", which formally proposed the concept of "Internet of Things".


The report pointed out that the ubiquitous "Internet of Things" communication era is coming, and all objects in the world, from tires to toothbrushes, from houses to paper towels, can be actively exchanged through the Internet. Radio frequency identification technology (RFID), sensor technology, nanotechnology, and intelligent embedded technology will be more widely used and paid attention to


On July 13, 2021, the Internet Society of China released the "China Internet Development Report (2021)", the Internet of Things market will reach 1.7 trillion yuan, and the artificial intelligence market will reach 303.1 billion yuan.


The basic characteristics of the Internet of Things From the perspective of communication objects and processes, the information interaction between things and people and things is the core of the Internet of Things. The basic characteristics of IoT can be summarized as overall perception, reliable transmission and intelligent processing

Overall perception - can use radio frequency identification, two-dimensional code, smart sensors and other sensing devices to perceive and obtain various information of objects.


Reliable transmission - Through the integration of the Internet and wireless networks, the information of objects is transmitted in real time and accurately, so as to facilitate information exchange and sharing.


Intelligent processing - use various intelligent technologies to analyze and process the data and information that are sensed and transmitted to realize intelligent monitoring and control.


According to the above characteristics of the Internet of Things, combined with the point of view of information science, around the flow of information, the functions of the Internet of Things to process information can be summarized:


(1) The function of obtaining information. It is mainly about the perception and identification of information. The perception of information refers to the perception and sensitivity of the state of things and their changes; the identification of information refers to the ability to express the perceived state of things in a certain way.


(2) The function of transmitting information. It is mainly the link of information sending, transmission, and reception, and finally the task of transmitting the acquired state information of things and the way they change from one point in time (or space) to another point, which is often referred to as the communication process.


(3) The function of processing information. It refers to the processing of information, using existing information or perceived information to generate new information, which is actually the process of making decisions.


(4) The function of applying effect information. Refers to the process in which information is finally effective. There are many forms of expression. The more important thing is to keep the object in a pre-designed state by adjusting the state of the object and its transformation method.


Key technology


RFID technology


When it comes to the Internet of Things, we have to mention the radio frequency identification technology (Radio Frequency Identification, referred to as RFID) that has attracted much attention in the development of the Internet of Things.


RFID is a simple wireless system consisting of an interrogator (or reader) and many transponders (or tags).


The tag is composed of a coupling element and a chip. Each tag has a unique electronic code for the extended entry. It is attached to the object to identify the target object. It transmits the radio frequency information to the reader through the antenna, and the reader is the device that reads the information.


RFID technology enables objects to "talk". This gives the IoT a feature of traceability. That is to say, people can grasp the exact location of the item and its surrounding environment at any time.


Sensor network


MEMS is the abbreviation of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems.


It is an integrated micro-device system composed of micro-sensors, micro-actuators, signal processing and control circuits, communication interfaces and power supplies.


Its goal is to integrate the acquisition, processing and execution of information to form a multi-functional micro-system, which can be integrated into a large-scale system, thereby greatly improving the automation, intelligence and reliability of the system.


It is a more general sensor. Because MEMS have given new life to ordinary objects, they have their own data transmission paths, storage functions, operating systems and specialized applications, thus forming a huge sensor network.


This enables IoT to monitor and protect people through objects.


M2M System Framework


M2M, short for Machine-to-Machine/Man, is a networked application and service centered on the intelligent interaction of machine terminals. It will enable objects to achieve intelligent control.


M2M technology involves five important technical parts: machine, M2M hardware, communication network, middleware, and application. Based on cloud computing platforms and intelligent networks, decisions can be made based on the data obtained by the sensor network, and the behavior of objects can be changed for control and feedback.


Take the smart parking lot as an example, when the vehicle enters or leaves the antenna communication area, the antenna conducts two-way data exchange with the electronic identification card by means of microwave communication, reads the relevant information of the vehicle from the electronic vehicle card, and stores it on the driver card. Read the driver's relevant information, automatically identify the electronic vehicle card and the driver's card, and judge whether the vehicle card is valid and the legality of the driver's card, and check the lane control computer displays the license plate number and driving number corresponding to the electronic vehicle card and the driver's card. The lane control computer automatically stores the passing time, vehicle and driver related information into the database, and the lane control computer judges whether it is a normal card, an unauthorized card, no card or an illegal card according to the data read. Respond and prompt accordingly. In addition, the elderly at home wear watches embedded with smart sensors, and children in other places can check their parents' blood pressure and heartbeat at any time through their mobile phones; when the owner goes to work, the sensor automatically turns off the water, electricity and doors and windows, and regularly sends the owner's The mobile phone sends a message to report the security situation


Cloud Computing


Cloud computing aims to integrate multiple relatively low-cost computing entities into a perfect system with powerful computing power through the network, and enable end users to obtain these powerful computing services with the help of advanced business models. If computing power is compared to power generation capacity, then from the ancient single-machine power generation mode to the centralized power supply mode of modern power plants, it is like the single-machine computing mode that everyone is accustomed to to the cloud computing mode, and the "cloud" is like a power plant, which has the power that a single machine cannot. Comparable computing power. This means that computing power can also be circulated as a commodity, just like gas, water, and electricity. It is easy to access and inexpensive, so that users do not need to equip it themselves. Unlike electricity, which is transmitted through the grid, computing power is transmitted through various wired and wireless networks. Therefore, a core concept of cloud computing is to continuously improve the processing capacity of the "cloud", reduce the processing burden of the user terminal, and finally simplify it into a simple input and output device, and enjoy the powerful computing of the "cloud" on demand. processing power. The IoT perception layer obtains a large amount of data information, and after it is transmitted through the network layer, it is placed on a standard platform, and then processed by high-performance cloud computing, giving these data intelligence, and finally converting it into useful information for end users




The application field of the Internet of Things involves all aspects, and the application in the infrastructure fields such as industry, agriculture, environment, transportation, logistics, security, etc. has effectively promoted the intelligent development of these aspects, making the limited resources more reasonable. Improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the industry.


The application in household, medical and health, education, finance and service industry, tourism and other fields closely related to life has greatly improved in terms of service scope, service method and service quality, greatly improving people's Quality of life; in the field of national defense and military, although it is still in the research and exploration stage, the impact of IoT applications should not be underestimated, ranging from satellites, missiles, aircraft, submarines and other equipment systems to individual combat equipment , the embedding of Internet of Things technology has effectively improved military intelligence, informatization, and precision, and greatly improved military combat effectiveness, which is the key to future military reforms


Smart Transportation


The application of Internet of Things technology in road traffic is relatively mature.


With the increasing popularity of social vehicles, traffic congestion and even paralysis have become a major problem in cities.


Real-time monitoring of road traffic conditions and timely transmission of information to drivers, allowing drivers to make travel adjustments in a timely manner, effectively alleviating traffic pressure; an automatic road toll collection system (ETC for short) is set up at expressway intersections, eliminating the need for import and export card collection and card return time, and improve the traffic efficiency of vehicles; a positioning system is installed on the bus, which can timely understand the bus route and arrival time, and passengers can determine travel according to the route, avoiding unnecessary waste of time.


The increasing number of vehicles in society not only brings traffic pressure, but also the difficulty of parking has become an increasingly prominent problem. Many cities have launched smart roadside parking management systems, which are based on cloud computing platforms, combined with Internet of Things technology and mobile payment technology. Parking space resources, improve the utilization of parking spaces and the convenience of users.


Smart Home

Smart home is the basic application of the Internet of Things in the home. With the popularization of broadband services, smart home products involve all aspects.


There is no one at home, you can use the mobile phone and other product clients to remotely operate the smart air conditioner, adjust the room temperature, and even learn the user's usage habits, so as to realize the automatic temperature control operation, so that the user can enjoy the ice when they go home in the hot summer. The comfort brought by coolness; realize the switch of smart light bulbs, control the brightness and color of the light bulbs through the client, etc.; the socket has built-in Wifi, which can realize the regular on-off current of the remote control socket, and even monitor the power consumption of the equipment and generate a power consumption chart Let you know the electricity consumption at a glance, arrange resource usage and expenditure budget; smart scales, monitor the effect of exercise.


Public safety


In recent years, global climate anomalies have occurred frequently, and the suddenness and harm of disasters have further increased. The Internet can monitor the insecurity of the environment in real time, make early prevention, real-time early warning, and take timely countermeasures to reduce the impact of disasters on human life and property. threaten


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