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RFID technology

RFID technology


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an acronym for Radio Frequency Identification.


The principle is the non-contact data communication between the reader and the tag to achieve the purpose of identifying the target.


The application of RFID is very wide, typical applications are animal chip, car chip immobilizer, access control, parking lot control, production line automation, material management


Radio Frequency Identification (Radio Frequency Identification, RFID) is a kind of automatic identification technology. It conducts non-contact two-way data communication through radio frequency, and uses radio frequency to read the recording medium (electronic tag or radio frequency card). write, so as to achieve the purpose of identifying the target and data exchange

Radio frequency identification technology does not contact fast information exchange and storage technology through radio waves, combines data access technology through wireless communication, and then connects to the database system to achieve non-contact two-way communication, thus achieving the purpose of identification, for data exchange, A very complex system is connected in series.



In the identification system, the reading, writing and communication of electronic tags are realized through electromagnetic waves. According to the communication distance, it can be divided into near field and far field. For this reason, the data exchange method between the read/write device and the electronic tag is correspondingly divided into load modulation and backscatter modulation.


Radio frequency identification technology can be divided into three categories according to the power supply method of its tags, namely passive RFID, active RFID, and semi-active RFID.


1. Passive RFID


Among the three types of RFID products, passive RFID is the earliest, the most mature, and the most widely used.


In passive RFID, the electronic tag completes the information exchange by receiving the microwave signal transmitted by the RFID reader and obtaining energy through the electromagnetic induction coil to supply power to itself for a short time.


Because the power supply system is omitted, the volume of passive RFID products can reach the order of centimeters or even smaller, and its own structure is simple, low cost, low failure rate, and long service life.


But as a price, the effective identification distance of passive RFID is usually short, and it is generally used for close contact identification.


Passive RFID mainly works in the lower frequency band 125KHz, 13.56MKHz, etc. Its typical applications include: bus cards, second-generation ID cards, canteen meal cards, etc.


2. Active RFID


Active RFID has not been around for a long time, but it has played an indispensable role in various fields, especially in the electronic non-stop toll collection system of expressways.


Active RFID is powered by an external power supply and actively sends signals to the RFID reader. Its volume is relatively large. But it also has a longer transmission distance and higher transmission speed.


A typical active RFID tag can establish contact with an RFID reader at a distance of 100 meters, with a read rate of 1,700 read/sec. Active RFID mainly works in higher frequency bands such as 900MHz, 2.45GHz, and 5.8GHz, and has the function of identifying multiple tags at the same time.


The long-distance and high-efficiency of active RFID makes it indispensable in some RFID applications that require high performance and large range.


3. Semi-active RFID


Passive RFID does not supply power by itself, but the effective identification distance is too short. Active RFID has a long enough identification distance, but requires an external power supply and is bulky. And semi-active RFID is a compromise product for this contradiction.


Semi-active RFID is also called low frequency activation trigger technology. Under normal circumstances, semi-active RFID products are in a dormant state and only supply power to the part of the tag that holds the data, so the power consumption is small and can be maintained for a long time. When the tag enters the identification range of the RFID reader, the reader first accurately activates the tag in a small range with a 125KHz low-frequency signal to make it work, and then transmits information to it through 2.4GHz microwave.


That is to say, first use low-frequency signals for precise positioning, and then use high-frequency signals to quickly transmit data. Its usual application scenario is: in a large range that a high-frequency signal can cover, multiple low-frequency readers are placed at different positions to activate semi-active RFID products.



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