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Detailed explanation of CAN bus protocol

Detailed explanation of CAN bus protocol


CAN bus definition :


CAN (Control Area Network) belongs to the category of field bus and is a serial bus with high performance, high reliability, easy development and low cost.


CAN was designed by the German company Bosch in 1986 for vehicle monitoring and control.


Due to its high performance, high reliability, real-time and other advantages, it is also widely used in various fields such as industrial automation, various control equipment, vehicles, medical instruments, construction, and environmental control. It is widely used in each field. Facilitated the standardization process.


In September 1991, PHILIPS SEMICONDUCTORS formulated and released the CAN technical specification V2.0, which includes two parts, A and B.


2.0A once defined the CAN message format in CAN technical specification 1.2, providing an 11-bit address; while 2.0B provides two standard and extended message formats, providing a 29-bit address.


Since then, ISO also officially released the international standard ISO11898 for CAN in November 1993. Among them, ISO11898-1 defines the CAN data link layer; ISO11898-2 defines the non-fault-tolerant CAN physical layer; ISO11898-3 defines the fault-tolerant physical layer of 11898-3.


The CAN bus protocol only defines the physical layer and the data link layer. To apply the CAN bus to actual engineering projects and product development, the upper layer application protocol must be formulated. At present, the protocols used in automobiles include: ISO15675 (transport layer protocol), ISO14229 (application layer protocol) and so on.


Features of CAN bus


1. Multi-master control mode. When the bus is idle, all units can send messages on the bus (multi-master control). The first unit to access the bus can get the right to send (using CSMA/CA). When multiple units transmit at the same time, the node with the smaller CANID gets the right to transmit.


2. Non-destructive bus arbitration technology. When a bus conflict occurs, high-priority packets can be transmitted unaffected to ensure the real-time requirements of high-priority; while low-priority packets are withdrawn from transmission.


3. High reliability. Each frame has a variety of error detection such as bit stuffing, CRC check, etc., to ensure a very low error rate; data frames that are lost during transmission or that are damaged due to errors can be automatically retransmitted (this is retransmitted by the CAN controller itself. send, no need to manually reload send data).


4. Automatically shut down the bus. The CAN controller can detect and determine the type of error on the bus, whether it is a transient data error (such as external noise), or a persistent data error (such as internal unit failure, driver failure, short circuit failure, etc.).

When the error is a persistent fault, the CAN controller can be automatically shut down and disconnected from the bus, so as not to affect the normal communication of other nodes on the bus.


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CAN converter

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USBCAN-OBD adapter



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