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Servo Motor refers to an engine that controls the operation of mechanical elements in a servo system, and is an auxiliary motor indirect transmission device.
The servo motor can control the speed, the position accuracy is very accurate, and the voltage signal can be converted into torque and speed to drive the control object.
The rotor speed of the servo motor is controlled by the input signal and can respond quickly. In the automatic control system, it is used as an executive element, and has the characteristics of small electromechanical time constant and high linearity, which can convert the received electrical signal into the motor shaft. angular displacement or angular velocity output.
It is divided into two categories: DC and AC servo motors. Its main feature is that when the signal voltage is zero, there is no rotation phenomenon, and the speed decreases uniformly with the increase of torque.
1. The servo system is an automatic control system that enables the output controlled quantities such as the position, orientation, and state of the object to follow any changes in the input target (or given value).
The servo mainly relies on pulses for positioning. Basically, it can be understood in this way that when the servo motor receives one pulse, it will rotate the angle corresponding to one pulse, thereby realizing the displacement. Because the servo motor itself has the function of sending out pulses, so every time the servo motor Rotating an angle, a corresponding number of pulses will be sent out, which echoes the pulses received by the servo motor, or is called a closed loop. In this way, the system will know how many pulses are sent to the servo motor and how many pulses are received at the same time. , in this way, the rotation of the motor can be precisely controlled, so as to achieve precise positioning, which can reach 0.001mm
DC servo motors are divided into brushed and brushless motors.
Brushed motors have low cost, simple structure, large starting torque, wide speed regulation range, easy control, and require maintenance, but maintenance is inconvenient (carbon brush replacement), generates electromagnetic interference, and has environmental requirements. Therefore, it can be used in general industrial and civil occasions that are sensitive to cost.
The brushless motor is small in size, light in weight, large in output, fast in response, high in speed, small in inertia, smooth in rotation and stable in torque. The control is complex, and it is easy to realize intelligentization. Its electronic commutation mode is flexible, and it can be square wave commutation or sine wave commutation.
2. The AC servo motor is also a brushless motor, which is divided into synchronous and asynchronous motors. Synchronous motors are generally used in motion control. It has a large power range and can achieve great power.
High inertia, low maximum rotational speed, and decreases rapidly as power increases. Therefore, it is suitable for applications that operate smoothly at low speeds.
3. The rotor inside the servo motor is a permanent magnet. The U/V/W three-phase electricity controlled by the driver forms an electromagnetic field. The rotor rotates under the action of this magnetic field. At the same time, the encoder that comes with the motor feeds back the signal to the driver, and the driver according to the feedback value Compared with the target value, the angle of rotation of the rotor is adjusted. The accuracy of the servo motor is determined by the accuracy of the encoder
The difference between AC servo motor and brushless DC servo motor in function: AC servo is better, because it is controlled by sine wave, and the torque ripple is small. DC servos are trapezoidal waves. But DC servos are simpler and cheaper.