What is a base station antenna?
What is a base station antenna ?
The antenna of the base station, which is more visible than the base station itself
After reading this introduction to antennas, you will know:
① What is an antenna?
② How does the antenna transmit the signal?
③ What are the key indicators of the antenna?
As we all know, antennas are used by base stations and mobile phones to transmit signals.
The English word antenna is Antenna, which originally means tentacles. The antennae are the two long filaments on the top of the insect's head, but don't underestimate such an inconspicuous thing. It is the chemical signals sent by these antennae that the insects transmit various social messages.
Similarly, in the human world, wireless communication also transmits information through antennas, but it transmits electromagnetic waves that carry useful information.
If you look up at the base station carefully, you will find that there are some plate-like things at the top of the tower. This is the protagonist of this article: the communication antenna, which is the one that most often flirts with the mobile phone.
This kind of antenna is called a directional antenna. As the name implies, the signal transmission is directional. If it is facing you, the signal is just right; if it is standing behind it, sorry, not in the service area!
At present, most base stations use directional antennas, which generally require three antennas to complete 360-degree coverage. To unravel the mystery of this stuff, you have to take it apart to see what's inside.
The interior is empty, and the structure is not complicated. It is composed of vibrators, reflectors, feeding networks and radomes. What do these internal structures do, and how do they achieve the function of directionally transmitting and receiving signals?
It all starts with electromagnetic waves.
The reason why the antenna can transmit information at high speed is because it can launch the electromagnetic wave carrying the information into the air, propagate at the speed of light, and finally reach the receiving antenna.
It is like transporting passengers by high-speed trains. If information is compared to passengers, then the tools for transporting passengers: high-speed trains are electromagnetic waves, and antennas are equivalent to stations, which are responsible for managing and dispatching the transmission of electromagnetic waves.
In general macro base station systems, the use of directional antennas is the most common. In general, a base station is divided into 3 sectors, covered with 3 antennas, each antenna covers a range of 120 degrees.
In 2001, several antenna manufacturers got together and established an organization called AISG (Antenna Interface Standards Group), which wanted to standardize the interface of electrically regulated antennas.
So far, there have been two versions of the protocol: AISG 1.0 and AISG 2.0.
With these two protocols, even if the antenna and the base station are produced by different manufacturers, as long as they both comply with the same AISG protocol, they can transmit the control information of the antenna downtilt angle to each other to realize the remote adjustment of the downtilt angle.
With the backward evolution of the AISG protocol, not only the downtilt angle in the vertical direction can be adjusted remotely, but also the azimuth angle in the horizontal direction, as well as the width and gain of the main lobe can be adjusted remotely.
In addition, due to the increasing number of wireless frequency bands of various operators, coupled with the sharp increase in the number of antenna ports required by technologies such as 4G MIMO, antennas have gradually evolved from single-frequency dual-port to multi-frequency multi-port.
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